This paper addresses the problem of low-delay location of faults due to lightning strikes from single-ended measurements in HVDC grids. A combined data-driven and model-driven approach is proposed. An estimate of the fault location is iteratively evaluated. No prior knowledge of the evolution of the voltage at the strike location is required. This voltage at the estimated fault location is inferred from data acquired by a single relay of the HVDC grid using a model of the propagation of transient waves along the lines. Then, employing this estimated voltage, the subsequent waves are inferred from the propagation model and compared to measured data so as to update the estimate of the fault location. The performance of the proposed approach is evaluated via simulations including field measurements of faults due to bipolar lightning strikes. A typical location accuracy of 300 m is obtained considering observations performed at 1 MHz over a observation windows of 0.5 ms.
Paul Verrax, Michel Kieffer, Louis Milhet, and Bertrand Raison
Published in IEEE transaction on Power Systems journal.